04. Special sequences ranges, tuples and lists

We've already covered strings, and learned about bytes and bytesarrays in the previous lesson. Now let's dive into the more interesting sequences - ranges, tuples and lists.

1) Ranges

Ranges are a list of integers, usually in a consecutive order. They are most commonly used to initiate and feed values within loops.

Creating a range

There are several options for declaring a range.

0 up to but not including m.
m up to but not including n.
range(m, n, step)
m up to but not including n with increments step.

2) Tuples

Tuples are immutable sequences that can contain any type of element.

Declaring tuples

Tuples are declared with parentheses (()). We can have a one-element tuples such as test,) or an empty tuple (). The comma for one-element tuples is necessary since the parentheses can be interpreted as a mathematical notation.

A simple example of a tuple is the a pair of numbers describing the xy-coordinate system.

given a sequence as an argument, tuple function creates a tuple containing the elements of the sequence

>>> tuple('banana')
('b', 'a', 'n', 'a', 'n', 'a')
>>> tuple(range(2, 10, 2))
(2, 4, 6, 8)

Tuple packing in functions

Since functions may return only one value, it's useful to use tuples when we want to return two or more datasets.

>>> def doubleTwoNumbers(x,y):
...    return (2*x, 2*y)
>>> print(doubleTwoNumbers(4,5))
(8, 10)

Exchanging tuples

You can easily exchange tuples with left, right = right, let. Let's see how we can use tuples to write out the fibonacci sequence.

>>> def fib(n):
...    a,b = 1,1
...    for i in range(n-1):
...        a,b = b,a+b
...    return a
>>> fib(5)

3) Lists

Lists are a comma-separated series of mutable values of any type of element. They're like a tuples, but better, with added flexibility.

Lists may contain items of different data types, but usually, they're all of the same type.

Declaring a list

Lists are declared between square brackets ([]).

>>> fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'pineapple']
>>> print(fruits)
['apple', 'banana', 'pineapple']
>>> min(fruits)
>>> 'pineapple' in fruits
>>> vegetables = ['kale', 'carrot', 'lettuce']
>>> vegetables + fruits
['kale', 'carrot', 'lettuce', 'apple', 'banana', 'pineapple']

As you can see, you can apply any sequence functions to our lists.

Nesting lists

You may also nest lists to create lists within lists.

>>> nested = [['a', 'b', 'c'], 'c']
>>> nested[0]
['a', 'b', 'c']
>>> nested[1]

Lists modifications

One unique property of lists is that they are mutable. This means you can change a variable from within the list. Take a look here of the list l and min/max indices i and j.

l[i] = x
Replace value at index i with value x.
l[i:j] = coll
Replace value from i up to but not including j with coll.
l[i:j] = []
Delete values stored from i up to but not including j.
l[i:j:k] = coll
Replace incrementally with step size k.
l[n:n] = coll
Insert elements of coll before the nth element of the list.
l[:] = coll
Replace entire contents of list l with coll.

Delete statement

Another way to remove list items is with the del keyword.

del lst[n]
Remove the nth element from lst.
del lst[i:j]
Remove elements from i through but not including j.
del lst[i:j:k]
Remove every kth element from i up to but not including j.

List modifications

Extend the list by appending with collection L.
l.insert(i, x)
Inserts x before the ith element of l.
Remove the first occurrence of x.
If x does not exist, an error comes up.
Append x to the end of l.
Remove the ith element and return it.
Reverses the list.
Sort the list l.

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