With file tests, we can check simple properties of file attributes. The file tests that require just one argument are called unary operators.
There are two simple tests to see if a file exists and if it's empty.
$ [ -e testFile.txt ]; echo $? 1 $ touch testFile.txt $ [ -e testFile.txt ]; echo $? 0 $ [ -s testFile.txt ]; echo $? 1 # File is empty $ echo "Hello world" > testFile.txt $ [ -s testFile.txt ]; echo $? 0
The following checks for the file's type. If any of the options below are used on a file that doesn't exist, the exit code returns a nonzero value.
$ [ -d Downloads ]; echo $? 0 $ touch testFile.txt $ [ -f testFile.txt ]; echo $? 0
We may also check the permissions settings of a file.
$ touch testFile.txt $ ls -l testFile.txt -rw-r--r-- 1 johnPC staff 0 Jul 3 11:02 testFile.txt $ [ -r testFile.txt ]; echo $? 0 $ [ -w testFile.txt ]; echo $? 0 $ [ -x testFile.txt ]; echo $? 1 $ chmod a+x testFile.txt $ [ -x testFile.txt ]; echo $? 0
Lastly, we have comparison operators, which looks at two files.
[ file1 -nt file2 ]
$ touch oldFile.txt $ touch newFile.txt $ [ oldFile.txt -nt newFile.txt ]; echo $? 1 $ [ oldFile.txt -ot newFile.txt ]; echo $? 0
Great! All this will come in handy once we learn key control-flow commands such as if-else statements and loops.
Command Line Kung Fu is packed with dozens of tips and practical real-world examples. You won't find theoretical examples in this book. The examples demonstrate how to solve actual problems. The tactics are easy to find, too. Each chapter covers a specific topic and groups related tips and examples together.$ Check price
Relieve your stress, back, neck and sciatic pain through 1,782 acupuncture points for immediate neck pain relief. Made for lower, upper and mid chronic back pain treatment, and improves circulation, sleep, digestion and quality of life.$$ Check price